By Dr. Solmaz Rezaei
Head of research and consulting department
Traffic is a universal word and refers to the collection of vehicles, individuals and animals in a specific route. In other words, the term traffic is relevant when there are three factors: human, road, and vehicle.
In 1850, only 4 cities with a population of more than one million people existed in the world, and in 2000 this number reached more than 2,000 cities, which, in the wake of such an ever-increasing population, there is an increase in the number of active automobiles, thus urban traffic control finds a special status and importance. At present, 20 percent of the world’s energy is spent on the transport sector which is also the source of most of the city’s air pollution. Based on the study, it is expected that with the increasing dependence on the use of cars by 2025, energy consumption in this sector and associated greenhouse gas emissions will be doubled by the year 2000.
Since the early 40s, the rapid and uneven development of large cities in Iran began, with the import and assembly of vehicles in the country. At this time, Iranian urban managers experienced phenomena such as traffic jams and air pollution. For urban areas such as Tehran, these developments evolved as the city center was traditionally designed and unaffected by the modernization of the traffic circuits in the immediate vicinity of the city center.
But now everyone knows that the traffic issue in Tehran has become a multi-dimensional problem. The problem has many consequences including mental disorders, waste of time, increased fuel consumption, environmental pollution, increased accidents causing financial and psychological damage, which are only part of the devastating effects that the urban community is facing constantly.
In order to examine the traffic issue more precisely, one should realize that transport and traffic engineering involves the use of technology and scientific principles for planning, designing operations, managing the operation of facilities for any type of displacement in order to provide safety, security, speed, comfort, economic efficiency and environmental compatibility in the transportation of man and goods. Therefore, any scientific and precise solution to the traffic problem, if provided and implemented independently of environmental, social, economic, and cultural realities, is, at best, usable in the short term and may in the long run cause other problems in the transport and traffic field. In this regard, a successful transport solution should consider the following four principles:
1- There are several different ways to move or travel. Multi module
2. Transport and traffic systems have different parts and components that should be considered in detail and from different points of view (the effect of transportation decisions on other transport sectors). Multi sector
3. Transport and traffic decisions are related to various economic, social, energy, and air pollution issues. Multi problem
4. Different parts of the transportation system depend on each other in different areas. Multi discipline
Below is a list of some of the causes of urban traffic and some of the ways to reduce urban traffic:
Causes of Urban Traffic:
• Inappropriate use of public transport vehicles and low share of pedestrian and bicycle trips
• Inappropriate distribution of service, administrative, commercial centers etc. in different regions, which increases the number of intra-city trips.
• Lack of sufficient groundwork for Internet use for citizens’ administrative bureaucracy
• Lack of public transportation network with appropriate coverage
• Traffic of worn out vehicles
• Worn out city centers and the existence of narrow passageways
• Low level of behavioral traffic culture between drivers and pedestrians
• Vehicle traffic interference with pedestrians
• Cars parked in narrow passages and violation of the law by drivers, double parking and stops in no park areas
• Frequent and out-of-date stays of taxis and passenger cars
How to reduce urban traffic?
• Create efficient public transport such as subways, buses and convenient terminals at subway stations.
• Prohibiting the entry of heavy machinery into the urban area
• Improving the quality of urban vehicles and imposing the ban on worn out vehicles transportation
• Construction of public parking lots in the city
• Using sub-surface spaces for pedestrians to cross the street
• Managibg start and end times of work to distribute traffic over a larger time period
• Ecommerce development
• Use of incentive methods for citizens for public transportation
With all this, we need to know that the traffic problem is not an issue that can be solved by a few specific methods, but also a set of all-round solutions should be provided and all of the related organizations have to play a positive role in its implementation.